Comparative Chloroplast Genomics
Daniell, Henry .
Chloroplast Genomics and Genetic Engineering.
Chloroplast genetic engineering approach offers a number of unique advantages, including a high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing, position & pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA. Several transgenes have been engineered via the chloroplast genome to confer useful agronomic traits or produce industrially high value biomaterials, vaccines and biopharmaceuticals. The hyper-expression of recombinant proteins offers a cost effective solution for using plants as bioreactors. Additionally, the presence of chaperones and enzymes within the chloroplast help to assemble complex multi-subunit proteins and correctly fold them with disulfide bonds, thereby significantly reducing the costs of in vitro processing. Oral delivery of vaccine antigens against cholera, tetanus, anthrax, plague, and canine parvovirus has been facilitated by hyper-expression and antibiotic-free selection systems in plastids. Plastid genetic engineering approach has helped to unveil a wealth of information about plastid DNA replication origins, intron maturases, translation elements and proteolysis, import of proteins and several other processes. Although many successful examples of plastid engineering have set a solid foundation for various future applications, this technology has not been extended to many of the major crops. However, highly efficient plastid transformation has been recently accomplished via somatic embryogenesis using species-specific chloroplast vectors in soybean, carrot and cotton. Transgenic carrots plants were able to withstand salt concentrations that only halophytes could tolerate. In the past twenty years only six crop chloroplast genomes have been sequenced; however, several crop chloroplast genomes have been sequenced recently, including soybean, cotton, citrus, coffee, potato, tomato, barley and sorghum. These advances provide an efficient platform for the production of therapeutic proteins, biomaterials or agronomic traits in an environmentally manner.
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1 - University of Central Florida, Molecular Biology & Microbiology, Biomolecular Science, Building #20, Room 336, Orlando, Florida, 32816-2364, USA
Presentation Type: Symposium or Colloquium Presentation
Location: Salon K - Austin Grand Ballroom/Hilton
Date: Monday, August 15th, 2005
Time: 11:15 AM