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Comparative Chloroplast Genomics

Jansen, Robert K. [1], Raubeson, Linda A. [2].

History and Current Status of Comparative Chloroplast Genomics.

The publication of complete sequences of the Nicotiana and Marchantia plastid genomes in 1986 provided the first opportunity for sequence-based whole genome comparisons. Prior to that time (and continuing to be the primary methodology for some time afterwards), whole genome comparisons were conducted via restriction site and gene order mapping. Although these approaches yielded important information, obviously much less detailed knowledge of chloroplast genomes could be obtained. Thus, during the past decade, there has been a rapid increase in our understanding of plastid genome organization and evolution due to the availability of many new completely sequenced genomes. Currently there are 45 complete genomes published and ongoing projects are likely to greatly increase this sampling during the next five years. Several groups of researchers have developed new techniques for gathering and analyzing entire plastid genomes. The most important recent developments for generating whole chloroplast genome sequences involve the generation of purified plastid DNA by whole genome amplification using rolling circular amplification or cloning genomes into Fosmid or BAC vectors, as well as the development of an organellar annotation program (DOGMA). This explosive increase in taxon sampling includes more representatives of all major lineages of photosynthetic organisms and will provide unprecedented opportunities for addressing phylogenetic questions at deep nodes. These data also will provide important new insights into both patterns and mechanisms of chloroplast genome evolution. Another outcome of these efforts will be the development of new algorithms, new models of chloroplast sequence and genome evolution, and improved computational tools for using both gene order and sequence data for phylogeny reconstruction. Finally, the chloroplast genomic data and the computational methods will be of great value to plant molecular biologists interested in the functional attributes of chloroplast genes, their interaction with other plant organelles, and their use in chloroplast genetic engineering.

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1 - University of Texas Austin, Section of Integrative Biology, 1 University Station, A6700, Austin, Texas, 78712-7640, USA
2 - Central Washington State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Ellensburg, Washington, 98926-7537, USA

Chloroplast Genomics, Genome Evolution, Plastids.

Presentation Type: Symposium or Colloquium Presentation
Session: 2-2
Location: Salon K - Austin Grand Ballroom/Hilton
Date: Monday, August 15th, 2005
Time: 8:45 AM
Abstract ID:163

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