Systematics Section / ASPT
Smith, James F. , Stevens, Angela C. , Davidson, Christopher .
A phylogenetic analysis of Piperaceae focusing on its major geographic centers of diversification and placement of African species.
Both Piper and Peperomia have pantropical distributions with the greatest diversity for both genera in South and Central America, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Africa, in comparison, is depauperate with an estimated 15 species of Piper, many of which are thought to be recent introductions such as Piper umbellatum, or escapes from cultivation such as Piper betle. Two species of Piper are known to be endemic to Africa, P. guineense and P. capense. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Piper is clearly divided into New and Old World clades with the Old World clade further divided into a primarily Pacific Island clade and a primarily mainland Asian clade. Piper queenslandii which may be expected to fall with the Pacific Island species, is part of the mainland clade. The two endemic African species of Piper are both part of the mainland Asian clade, but fall into two different well-supported clades. Piper guineense, a dioecious vining species is in a clade with several other Southeast Asian species. Piper capense, a monoecious erect shrub, is sister to the cultivated Piper nigrum. As expected, P. umbellatum from Africa is part of a clade with individuals from Central and South America, implying that it has been introduced recently. All African individuals fall into a single clade, implying a potentially limited number of introductions. Peperomia species have not been as widely sampled in this analysis, but the data do not delimit this genus into New and Old World clades, implying that perhaps the smaller fruits of Peperomia have allowed for more frequent introductions throughout the tropics.
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1 - Boise State University, Department of Biology, 1910 University Drive, Boise, Idaho, 83725-1515, USA
2 - Idaho Botanical Research Foundation, 2713 Rhyolite, Boise, Idaho, 83712, USA
Presentation Type: Poster
Location: Salon C, D & E - Gov Ballroom/Hilton
Date: Tuesday, August 16th, 2005
Time: 12:30 PM